Our last survey for the Old Testament. These guys are fascinating, and so much of what they said reverberates into our century. If it’s been awhile, just read through Amos or Habakkuk and see what God says to them…and to you.
After today, we’ll take a break from the Content and Context series. While it is good and helpful (I’ve learned many things in writing it!), we need some real how-to-parent-with-intentionality postings. I’ll intersperse the New Testament charts over the months ahead.
- About: God’s covenant, Israel’s idolatry
- God loves His people and wants them to have a faithful relationship with Him.
- Big stories: Hosea loves his unfaithful wife, Israel worships other gods
- Author: Hosea
- Time: just before the fall of Israel/Northern Kingdom in 722bc (Isaiah, Amos)
- “Who is wise? Let them realize these things. Who is discerning? Let them understand. The ways of the Lord are right; the righteous walk in them, but the rebellious stumble in them.” Hosea 14:9
- About: locusts, Day of the Lord
- God uses a natural disaster to remind the people of coming judgment followed by restoration.
- Big stories: invasion of locusts, promises for the day of judgment
- Author: Joel
- Time: unclear, but probably before the fall of Jerusalem
- “The Lord will roar from Zion and thunder from Jerusalem; the earth and the heavens will tremble. But the Lord will be a refuge for his people, a stronghold for the people of Israel.” Joel 3:16
- About: social justice, honest worship
- God wants His people to live with integrity, experiencing authentic worship.
- Big stories: Amos’ calling, fat cows of Bashan, call to repentance
- Author: Amos
- Time: about 30 years before Israel went into captivity (Isaiah, Hosea, Jonah)
- “But let justice roll on like a river, righteousness like a never-failing stream!” Amos 5:24
- About: Edom (shortest book in the Old Testament)
- God will punish Edom for participating in Israel’s devastation.
- Big stories: Edom’s failure to help Israel
- Author: Obadiah
- Time: probably just before the fall of Judah (Jeremiah)
- “The pride of your heart has deceived you…you who say to yourself, ‘Who can bring me down to the ground?’ Though you soar like the eagle and make your nest among the stars, from there I will bring you down,” declares the Lord. Obadiah 3-4
- About: disobedience, ethnocentrism (belief that your culture is superior)
- God cares about other people groups as well as His chosen people.
- Big stories: Jonah swallowed by a fish, Jonah preaching to Nineveh
- Author: maybe Jonah or maybe someone who knew him
- Time: after Amos & Hosea but before the fall of Israel/Northern Kingdom
- “Then the word of the Lord came to Jonah a second time: ‘Go to the great city of Nineveh and proclaim to it the message I give you.’ Jonah obeyed the word of the Lord and went to Nineveh.” Jonah 3:1-3a
- About: divine judgment and deliverance
- God’s judgment is certain, but so is his restoration through the coming Messiah.
- Big stories: prophecy about Bethlehem, call for social justice
- Author: Micah
- Time: before & after the fall of Israel/Northern Kingdom (Isaiah, Hosea)
- “He has shown you, O mortal, what is good. And what does the Lord require of you? To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God.” Micah 6:8
- About: fall of Nineveh
- God’s people can be sure He will judge their oppressors.
- Big stories: descriptions of Nineveh’s future destruction
- Author: Nahum
- Time: between the fall of Israel and of Judah (Zephaniah)
- “The Lord is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him, but with an overwhelming flood he will make an end of Nineveh; he will pursue his foes into the realm of darkness.” Nahum 1:7-8
- About: complaints and questions to God
- God’s timing is always perfect.
- Big stories: God answers complaints, Habakkuk’s confidence in God
- Author: Habakkuk
- Time: before the fall of Jerusalem (Jeremiah)
- “Lord, I have heard of your fame; I stand in awe of your deeds, Lord. Repeat them in our day, in our time make them known; in wrath remember mercy.” Habakkuk 3:2
- About: the Day of the Lord, judgment
- God’s justice will prevail not only among His people but around the world.
- Big stories: warnings for Judah and other nations
- Author: Zephaniah
- Time: between the fall of Israel and of Judah (King Josiah, Jeremiah, Nahum)
- “Be silent before the Sovereign Lord, for the day of the Lord is near. The Lord has prepared a sacrifice; he has consecrated those he has invited.” Zephaniah 1:7
- About: priorities, the temple’s glory
- God calls for His people to be faithful, then they will be blessed.
- Big stories: rebuilding the temple, blessings for faithfulness
- Author: Haggai
- Time: 520bc, when exiles returned to rebuild the temple (Ezra/Nehemiah, Zechariah)
- “’I will shake all nations, and what is desired by all nations will come, and I will fill this house with glory,’ says the Lord Almighty.” Haggai 2:7
- About: encouragement, Messianic prophecies
- God is sovereign and keeps His promises.
- Big stories: vision dreams, social justice over fasting, the coming Messiah
- Author: Zechariah
- Time: after exiles returned to rebuild the temple (Ezra/Nehemiah, Haggai)
- “This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel: ‘Not by might nor by power, but by my Spirit,’ says the Lord Almighty.” Zechariah 4:6
- About: breaking the covenant, the coming King
- While God will preserve a remnant, His judgment is surely coming.
- Big stories: list of covenant violations, blessing for tithing, scroll of remembrance
- Author: Malachi
- Time: post-exilic (Nehemiah). Probably the latest of the OT prophets.
- “But for you who revere my name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its rays. And you will go out and frolic like well-fed calves.” Malachi 4:2
A friend of mine just posted a poem about prophets. Since we’re in the Minor Prophets, it seems appropriate to share it *here*.